1
Fac
tor
s
a
ff
ec
ting th
e
s
tr
a
t
e
gi
c
pl
a
nning in lo
ca
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org
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igning
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tru
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Abstract
This study aims to identifying the problems affecting strategic planning in local organizations which can help the development of
the society. Through conducting interviews and studying the available sources, 33 factors were identi
f
ied and presented, and they
were subdivided into four major groups of behavioral, communicative, knowledge and institutional ones. The classi
f
ication was
designed based on the application of Interpretive Structural Model (ISM) and a qualitative-quantitative method. The Smart PLS
software was used as the best tool of Structural Equation modeling for devising the model of the study. The
f
inal model was also
tested by the technique of the least partial squares. The six factors of political behavior, expertise in negotiation, communicative
technologies, relations with extra-organizational agents, effectiveness of the regulations and organization were found as the
fundamental factors. Validity of the model included the indices of validity of commonality and the validity of increase. The indices
of the
f
itness of the model were also positive and greater than zero which indicates that the devised model has acceptable quality
and validity. Also, the GOF index gained out of the calculations was found to be 0.611, which shows the high quality of the model.
The hypotheses of the study pertaining to the effects of the four groups of factors on the strategic planning were also attested with
0.95 possibilities. Finally, based on results gained out of the study, certain strategies were suggested for the local organizations.
Key words: Strategic planning, Local organizations, Knowledge factors, Behavioral factors, Communicative factors.
Fac
tor
e
s
qu
e
a
f
ec
t
a
n l
a
pl
a
nifi
cac
ión
e
s
tr
a
t
ég
i
ca
e
n
l
a
s
or
ga
ni
zac
ion
e
s
lo
ca
l
e
s
p
a
r
a
di
s
e
ñ
a
r un mod
e
lo
e
s
tru
c
tur
a
l
Resumen
Este estudio tiene como objetivo identi
f
icar los problemas que afectan la plani
f
icación estratégica en las organizaciones locales
que pueden ayudar al desarrollo de la sociedad. Mediante la realización de entrevistas y el estudio de las fuentes disponibles, se
identi
f
icaron y presentaron 33 factores, que se subdividieron en cuatro grupos principales de comportamiento, comunicación,
conocimiento e instituciones. La clasi
f
icación fue diseñada en base a la aplicación del Modelo Estructural Interpretativo (ISM) y
un método cualitativo-cuantitativo. Para diseñar le modelo de estudio se utilizó el software Smart PLS como mejor herramienta
de modelado de ecuaciones estructurales. El modelo
f
inal se probó mediante la técnica de los cuadrados mínimos parciales.
Los seis factores de comportamiento político, experiencia en negociación, tecnologías comunicativas, relaciones con agentes
extraorganizacionales, efectividad de las regulaciones y organización se encontraron como factores fundamentales. La validez del
modelo incluía los índices de validez de comunidad y la validez de aumento. Los índices de adecuación del modelo también fueron
positivos y mayores que cero, lo que indica que el modelo ideado tiene una calidad y validez aceptables.Además,se encontró que el
índice GOF obtenido de los cálculos era 0.611, lo que muestra la alta calidad del modelo. Las hipótesis del estudio sobre los efectos
de los cuatro grupos de factores en la plani
f
icación estratégica también fueron atestiguadas con 0,95 posibilidades. Finalmente,con
base en los resultados obtenidos del estudio, se sugirieron ciertas estrategias para las organizaciones locales.
Palabras clave: plani
f
icación estratégica,organizaciones locales,factores de conocimiento,factores de comportamiento,factores
comunicativos.
Recibido: 10 de febrero de 2020
Aceptado: 03 de junio de 2020
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Revista Ciencia UNEMI
Vol. 13, N° 34, Septiembre-Diciembre 2020
, pp. 01 - 15
ISSN 1390-4272 Impreso
ISSN 2528-7737 Electrónico
2
Volumen 13, Número 34,
Septiembre-Diciembre 2020
, pp. 1 - 15
I. INTRODUCCIÓN
Local organization is an old institute and a
new concept whose history goes back to the long
past of human history and life. It was born out of
the attempts at enhancing the social management
mean a public organization with a wide range of
responsibilities and authorities in a certain part of
a country such as province, state, city, and town
or in smaller territories like centers, villages, etc.
Such organizations are intended for administering
the affairs of the region or part of the country.
Through the local organizations, people can devise
or regulate new rules and regulations based on the
privileges and authorities bestowed on them by the
institutional law or regulations of a country as long
as such new rules are not contrary to the country’s
laws.
All the governmental activities lower than the
level of the political and economic issues of the
greater community fall within the authority of
the local organizations. The power and authority
of the local organizations are bestowed on them
through the acts and announcements issued by
the local councils, associations and administrators
part of the government of a country or state which
is basically concerned with the management of the
financial issues of a locality. It also manages the
cases which the parliament assigns to it and which
it considers acceptable or profitable for the local
people.
studies
Nowadays, comprehensive urban plans have
been considered as one of the most basic tools of
policy-making in most of the cities of the Third
World countries, especially the oil-producing ones.
Yet, such plans have not been fully successful in
enhancing the current states of the cities and leading
of human society. Local organization can alsothem toward a desirable growth, employment rate,
and suitable residences. The reason for this failure
is that the plans have not been devised based on
the standard patterns and direct participation of
people in the urban development plans. Therefore,
it is supposed that urban planning in developing
countries has always been faced with a certain
defect which is lack of localization and localized
concepts and principles used in plans of urban
development. About this, Lack of a step-by-step
pattern in urban planning approaches which are
oriented toward the urban development strategies,
and lack of systematic outlook toward the cities
in the developing countries have been among the
essential problems that Third World countries are
faced with. Many such plans are only workable
as temporary solutions for the problem of urban
development. One main problem with the plans is
that they are not matched with each other and have
a limited scope in terms of time and the problems
Ostovari, 2012). Also, local organization involves
the management of public affairs of each locality
through an administrative committee of the council.
Although this agent is subordinated to the central
government in many respects, it has authority in
decision-making (Tony Byrne, 1983). John Clark
(Mohammad Moghimi, 2007). Regarding thethey tend to solve. These problems along with the
philosophy of the creation of the councils forefforts of urban planners in recent decades, for
involving the local people in the decision-makingsgetting along with the changes in urban planning,
and administration of their local affairs, theled to the emergence of strategic planning for the
Islamic Councils are considered a sort of localurban development. The strategy of urban planning
parliament (Mohammad Emami and Koroushis among the recent programs which provide a tool
for the balanced and progressive development of
the cities and the regions around them. This plan
chooses the best possible options for the cities of
future. By emphasizing the regular participation of
the people and devising long-term perspectives for
the cities, this plan is different from the previous
(1995) also maintains that a local organization ismodels of urban planning. The abundance of
urban problems and the new conditions of urban
life in a world which is becoming ever globalized,
make the necessity of change in the approaches of
urban planning inevitable. The current plans for
the development of cities in Iran are most often
provided in the form of descriptive comprehensive
trial as they are anatomic, static and traditional
Theoretical bases and review of previousandnosocial,politicalandmanagement
considerations have been applied in devising them.
In practice, they also suffer from lack of flexibility,
3
Behzad et al. Factors affecting the strategic planning in local organizations
low possibility of implementation and low level of
realization of the predicted aims, etc.
A short review of the processes for devising
and creating urban development plans shows they
undergo very severe and repressive measures in
their production. Also, the insufficiency of urban
development plans and the quick development of
cities have sometimes led to the dissatisfaction of
the people living in metropolitan centers with the
quality of life in terms of high prices of housing,
pollution, disorders in trial service providers,
improper distribution of the incomes, increase
in the number of irregular habitation and along
with it, increase in social disorders and problems.
of the managers. Yet, urban development shall
be done in a people-oriented manner and upside
very helpful. Only those cities can reach a stable
development whose managers and officials can
best solve the urban problems with proper policies
and creative and informed plans. They also shall
solve the problems according to the capacities
and potentials of the cities and consider the fact
that for each locality, there are certain solutions
which are specified to it and related to its domestic
capabilities. It was with this stance in mind that
the institutional law of Islamic Republic of Iran in
heavytransportationtraffic,environmentalits Article 7 considers the city councils as the fourth
base for decision-making for the country along
with the three major Legislative, Administrative,
and Judicial bodies.
Development in local scopes is also among the
tasks of today’s managers and planners of the
cities, and it is trial to fail if it is done through
Such problems create new expectations and Strategic planning in cities and municipalities
responsibilities for the urban management. Now we will present the model of strategic
planning (Figure 1) in the form of trial major
steps (Taabibia,Maleki, 2004).
mere hierarchal orders and unstable knowledgeThe first step: Studying and devising a
mission at large scale. In this step, the main focus
is on identifying and formulating the citizenship
borderline provinces of Iran which has a long
history and culture and has always played a pivotal
role in the life of the country. Various studies of
the healthcare, cultural, religious, social, tourism
and infrastructural indices of development show
down through people to the managers. And this is needs such as urbanization, transportation,
a fact that has most often been ignored not only urban services or urban culture for which such
in Kermanshah province, here studied, but in most organizations as city, municipality and city
other cities of Iran. council are realized. Upon designating the main
Kermanshah province is one of the important trends of the mission, the subordinated units
and organizations would take measures based on
the trends which can also be set with reference to
certain sources such as the legal terms and devised
laws, the strategic plans of the successful cities and
municipalities of the world, comments of the extra-
problem is to reform the planning system of the
country at national, regional and local levels, and
the centralized pattern (top to down planning)
should be replaced with decentralized (down to top
planning) through which to implement mechanisms
for the participation of people, local institutions
and experts. The familiarity of the local people
and authorities with the environmental features,
needs, capacities and priorities of the localities
can be effective. Bestowing legal privileges and
authorities to the Islamic Councils of the cities and
municipalities as the local governors to be used in
the formation and supervision of local plans can be
the very bad status of them in Kermanshah regional agents involved, consulting the guidance
province. The most workable solution for this of the scientific fields that are related to trial
management and development and the trial of
the experts. In this part, trends for the mission are
devised at the two levels of city and municipality
while a logical relation is also worked out between
them.
The second step: knowing the internal and
external situation of the cities and municipalities.
Organizations are internally involved with various
sorts of resources, equipment, staff and managers,
while externally; they are connected with their
public and responsibility milieus. All these case
are ever changing today and each of the changes
4
Volumen 13, Número 34,
Septiembre-Diciembre 2020
, pp. 1 - 15
they undergo can have varying positive or negative
effects on the life and well-being of the organization.
Yet, many extensive structures such as the cities
and extended organizations such as municipalities
with a true understanding of the conditions of the
city and municipality, seek out all the weak points,
strengths, threats and opportunities trial can be
discovered through a thorough consideration of the
trends, political, economic, social and technological
2005). The milieu and conditions shall be realized
at the level of both city and the organization of
municipality through the comments of the experts
and involved parties.
The third step: considering and determining
the strategic problems of the city and the strategic
areas related to the municipalities and selecting
some of them. Such problems and areas are of great
importance in identifying and setting the outlooks.
aspects and elements so as to identify the weak
points and strengths of their internal and external
milieus and use them in their plans. To do this, the
environmental variables should be determined and
worked through (Theodore Poister and Gregory
can change some of these external or internalWhen devising the strategic plans, strategic
factors. Thus, strategists of great organizationsproblems are areas governing the acts of budget
should carefully study all the environmentalassignment and plans for the localities. Therefore,
when setting up the missions and strategies, the
urban and municipality managements must invest
in and pay special attention to these areas and
cases (Robert Kaplan, 2002).
Streib., 2005). The planner team should, alongThe fifth step: clarifying the outlooks of
the city and municipality. In the fifth step, the
outlooks of these two organizations are clarified
and explicated. As in the second step, this is done
by a group of city council members and high-
ranking managers of the municipality who also
factors (Theodore Poister and Gregory Streib.,receive the consultation of the experts of the trial.
The outcome of this step, issued in the form of a
document, is the relationship between the city and
municipality with the major parties, general aims
and expression of the basic policies. The outlook
is a description of such problems as the tasks of
the city and municipality, their basic strategies,
directions in the mission trends and analyzing the
surrounding situation, it is necessary to specify
the framework for choice of policy. In fact, in
this step, the desirable procedure for urban and
the policy (framework for choice) in city and the bases for their acts, certain important
municipality. After determining the major principles related to the decision-making, etc.
They also designate the trial framework which the
organization seeks to reach (Theodore Poister and
Gregory Streib., 2005).
trial steps of the model, purposeful direction of
the outputs of the model, and reducing the time
of planning and guaranteeing the realization of
organization’s policy. We need to determine the
pattern and procedures of management at both
city and municipality levels. It is necessary for
the planners to act by consulting the ideas of the
experts with global experiences.
municipality management will be determined.The sixth step: studying the difference
Among the privileges of this step is setting a between the ideal and current structures of city and
common procedure for both the planners and municipality. In this stage, the possibility of change
involved parties. Among the aims of this step in the structure of the organization for achieving
are logically restricting the alternatives of the the legal and assigned mission is considered and
finally a choice is made between the two options
of “essential changes” and “reformative changes”.
The “essential change” approach is undertaken
when the desirable mission has suffered a tangible
difference in its content from what it has been
or when its effective implementation, based on
experts’ ideas, needs an essential transformation
in its present form. In other words, the current
organization and structure are suffering from
The fourth step: determining the strategiesintervolved, parallel, interfering and overlapping
of the cities and the strategic fields of municipality. tasks and lack of effective mechanisms for
This step consists in identifying and prioritizing communication and cooperation. This leads to
5
Behzad et al. Factors affecting the strategic planning in local organizations
ineffective actions in most of the subordinated
units and in general, the total performance of the
city and municipalities.
needed by the city, municipality and their related
units. In this part, the mangers can choose among
the various strategies of the city and municipalities
Gholamreza Olfati (2001) investigated on the
effects of organizational factors on the process of
strategic planning in a cement factory. He found
that among the effective elements, the following
creating variety in different services. This choice
which begins at the level of the units is such that
leadership committee of the unit should devise
special strategies for showing how the mission,
The seventh step: formulating strategiesaims and outlooks shall be realized. The units
shall express their strategies in the form of large-
scale policies of city and municipality, peripheral
considerations related to their services, resources
such as focusing on one certain service orand trial for the achievement of the missions
(Theodore Poister and Gregory Streib., 2005).
Fi
gu
r
e 1. The model of strategic planning in cities and municipalities.
Source: Arnoldo C. Hax, Nicolas S. Majluf (1996).
Previous Studiesorganizational culture, organizational structure,
the support from the leadership of the organization,
the knowledge and familiarity of executives trial
the plans, accepting and participation of the staff
and using advanced technology and information
planning process in municipality of the region 6 of
Tehran. His findings indicate that all the studied
factors have had positive effects on devising and
implementing the strategic plans. The factors were
four factors had the greatest impacts on thesystems. Seyed Reza Hejazi et al. (2000) presented
strategic planning in this company: organizationala theoretical framework for enhancing the
culture, high-ranking managers’ knowledge of thecompetitive edge of knowledge-based companies
science of planning, reception and participation ofthrough the use of innovative open model A
the staff and technology and advanced informationframework based on which, through employing the
systems. Also,Asghar Tourabi (2010) throughsuggested mechanisms, the companies can increase
consulting the library and research sourcestheir competitive edge by increasing the incomes
attempted to identify the factors affecting theearned out of the open innovative mechanisms
or decreasing the costs of cooperation. Likewise,
Samenh Darbandi and Khoroshid Sedighi (2009)
studied the open innovative approach and its role
in the development of innovation. They concluded
6
Volumen 13, Número 34,
Septiembre-Diciembre 2020
, pp. 1 - 15
companies with the help of which they can remain
active in a situation imbued with complexity and
changes. Open innovation increases adaptability
and has certain other direct privileges for the
company. For instance, the products will be better
matched with the demands of the market, the
structure of the cost would be flexible, innovation
increases, and there would be easier access to the
Sepideh Rasoulian et al. (2009) investigated
on the relationships of 8 organizational factors
with success of strategic planning in the National
Gas company of Iran and found that the five
factors of participation of the chief executives,
their knowledge about the importance of strategic
planning, the participation of the staff, change
studied on strategic planning. He found that the
while its conformity with the strategic goals of
its success when being devised, and information
systems are the most important factors helping
the success of its implementation. Mohammadreza
Haki (2006) divided the effective variables into
three major ones, namely organizational factors,
the aspects of strategic planning of information
technology and the success of strategic planning
factors are effective on strategic alignment and can
planning of information technology. Interestingly,
Vafa Ghafarian (2003) gathered all the information
about the failed strategies of such great companies
that the open innovation is necessary for theas Trial, Polaroid, Acer, Motorola, Key-Mart
and Marconi. He presented two theories about
the failures, one of which implies that the frailty
of leadership was the reason for the declines,
and the second one holds that lack of the new
concept of focused planning along with long-term
strategy and planning was the reason for the failed
strategies in these companies. The findings are
supported by real evidence from the firms. Another
knowledge.study was conducted by Taymor Aghai (1991)
who discussed the schools of management and
planning from the very beginning of formation to
planning and new management and then, studies
the process of planning and control in industries to
conclude that in order for it to succeed, there shall
be conformity and alignment among the elements
of a manufacturing agency (management, financial
had no such effects. Also, Mahdi Mobalegh (2009),
management and correct evaluation of theaffairs, production, provision and sales).
environment had significant effects on strategic Umar AlTurki (2011) studied the relationship
planningwhilethreeothers,organizationalbetween the strategies of the company and other
commitment, accepting the staff and data bases,areas, strategic planning in the operational
preservation with a preservation system, Umar
AlTurki provided a framework for the development
systems supporting the chief financial management,
most important factor involved in the process of of strategic planning. Results from this study
beginning strategic planning is the information showed that among the involved parties, the
factor of the committed chief management was
among the main factors in the success of strategic
the organization is the most essential factor ofplanning of preservation in organizations. The
point to notice in this study was the difference in
the degrees of commitment in each of the parties
because of covert privileges and sorts of parties in
the organization. Said Elbanna (2009) determined
factors in the success of management. He concluded
that there was a positively significant relationship
between the implementation of strategic planning
interactive organizational factors, while the aspects
of strategic planning include alignment between
the strategic planning of information technology
of information technology. Strategic planning and its participation in the development of recent
includes internal organizational factors and strategic works and the success of the strategic
planning. Also, Kelly J. Harris (2009) researched
about the important factors affecting the success
of strategic planning. He accounted for 10 major
from this study, all the interactive organizational
and the strategic business plan of the organization factors involved in the success of strategic
and environmental evaluation. Based on results planning, some of which are the participation
of the staff, support from the chief executives,
explication of the needs, suitable planning, real
be a telling factor in the success of the strategicexpectation, the stages of the project, proper
facilities, clear aims and outlooks, great attempts
and focusing on these factors. John Sterling and
Dave Rader (2012) investigated on the different
7